- Editors: Please keep these annotations SPOILER-FREE by not revealing information from later pages in the novel. And please pay attention to formatting and grammar. Preview your changes before saving them. Thanks!
157* · Winter B.S. 1960
- 1 Page 158
- 2 Page 159
- 3 Page 160
- 4 Page 161
- 5 Page 162
- 6 Page 163
- 7 Page 164
- 8 Page 165
- 9 Page 166
- 10 Page 167
- 11 Page 168
- 12 Page 169
- 13 Page 169
- 14 Page 170
- 15 Endnote 56
- 16 Page 170 (cont'd)
- 17 Endnote 57
- 18 Page 170 (cont'd)
- 19 Page 171
- 20 Page 172
- 21 Page 173
- 22 Page 174
- 23 Page 175
- 24 Page 176
- 25 Page 176
- 26 Page 177
- 27 Page 178
- 28 Page 179
- 29 Page 180
- 30 Page 181
- 31 Page 181
- 32 Page 182
- 33 Page 183
- 34 Page 184
- 35 Endnote 60
- 36 Page 184 (cont'd)
- 37 Page 185
- 38 Endnote 61
- 39 Page 185 (cont'd)
- 40 Page 186
- 41 Page 187
- 42 Page 188
- 43 Endnote 64
- 44 Page 189
- 45 Page 190
- 46 Page 191
- 47 Endnote 66
- 48 Page 191 (cont'd)
- 49 Page 192
- 50 Page 193
most swinish, i.e., most pig-like
a pejorative intensifier, chiefly British in usage
something very small
members of the Beat generation
1956 Mercury Montclair
See right, though Incandenza's father's car is "bit-lip red."
full of small protuberances
another word for tendon
According to the OED, a parp is a honking sound; parping is defined as causing something (as a car horn) to parp.
Head is body.
Incandenza's father is expressing a non-Cartesian point of view. René Descartes (1596-1650), the French polymath, separated the mind (res cogitans) from the body (res extensa).
putting into action
what turns the rudder to steer a boat
a muscle of the forearm
having whorls, i.e., coiled and spiral shapes
He's referring to divots, i.e., bits of the fairway that get torn up when a golf ball is hit.
He's probably referring to anal-retentive rage, rather than rage specifically located in the anus.
a brand of automobile, examples of which can be seen here
past tense of heave
in a sociable manner
Note that Incandenza's father calls his own father by the same nickname as Incandenza's children call him.
Italian: Without errors
From Afrikaans, this is a word for an open field with grass, bushes, etc.
quick and skillful
here referring to Franklin Roosevelt
This is "a structure of crossed wooden or metal strips usually arranged to form a diagonal pattern of open spaces between the strips" (Random House Unabridged Dictionary).
a city of Arizona, 82 miles south of Tucson
probably referring to James Dean
absence of motion
having a rough surface because of minute points or projections
having undergone mortification of the flesh, i.e., abuse of the body by one's self as a form of penance
the University of Southern California
probably Frankie Avalon
169 · Pemulis Scores DMZ
Year of the Depend Adult Undergarment
suggestive in style of the ancient Romans
a square in Cambridge named for colonial merchant Ralph Inman
a high-fashion clothes company
Gilligan's Island character Thurston J. Howell, III
jaunty or dashing
formal shoes with laces
the enclosed part of an airplane, where the engine is housed
Most commonly, this acronym stands for "demilitarized zone," as in the area between North and South Korea. Here it is a made-up drug name.
not a real Web site
Mescaline is the active ingredient in peyote.
an acronym for trimethoxyamphetamine
DOM or STP
STP stands for "serenity, tranquity, and peace," and it's a pseudonym for DOM, which stands for dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine.
acronym for [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimethyltryptamine dimethyltryptamine
Ololiuqui or datura's scopolamine, or Fluothane, or Bufotenine (a.k.a. 'Jackie-O.'), or Ebene
Ololiuqui is a type of morning glory plants, the seeds of which are known to be hallucinogenic. Datura's scopolamine is another name for hyoscine. Fluothane is an inhaled general anesthetic. Bufotenine is an alternate spelling of bufotenin and is the active ingredient in the skin of toads that cause hallucinations when licked. (I have no idea why it's called "Jackie-O.") Ebene is a South American tree that yields a hallucinogen used in rituals.
acronym for [paramethoxyamphetamine paramethoxyamphetamine]
Found in nutmeg, it does not have hallucinogenic properties.
Also called LSA, it's found in morning glory seeds
Found in varieties of dogbane, it is a drug used to ease heroin withdrawal.
Yagé is the native name for banisteria. Harmaline is the active ingredient.
apparently a coined word
Page 170 (cont'd)
better known as the Tibetan Book of the Dead
referring to Italian Futurism, an art movement on the early 20th century
Page 170 (cont'd)
chemist at Sandoz Pharm.
This would be Albert Hoffman (born 1906), a Swiss scientist best known for first synthesizing LSD.
Alan Wilson Watts (1915-1973) was a British-born philosopher and writer in the field of comparative religion.
Timothy Francis Leary (1920-1996) was an American writer and psychologist best known as an advocate for regular LSD use.
a town in New York state, about 90 miles north of New York City
actually a radio station in Syracuse, New York
The Riverside Shakespeare is one of the better-known editions of Shakespeare's work. Note that Hal, who is based on the character Hamlet, is reading Hamlet.
Consummation of the Levirates
A levirate is a man called up to marry his elder brother's childless widow, in accordance with Jewish Law.
a deliberate (probably) misspelling of Barron's
Tilden on Spin</b>
The book by William Tatem "Big Bill" Tilden II (1893-1953), American tennis giant, is actually entitled Match Play and the Spin of the Ball.
172 · TENNIS AND THE FERAL PRODIGY
a person who loads and unloads cargo from boats
almost 25 miles
formants and fricatives, trochaically stressed
A format is, according to Wikipedia, "a peak in an acoustic frequency spectrum which results from the resonant frequencies of any acoustic system." A fricative is a phoneme produced by forcing air through tight lips. In English, fricatives are /s/, /z/, /th/, and /zh/. Trochaically means spoken in trochees, or a metrical foot on two syllables with the stress on the first (the word "trochee" is a trochee).
An aperture is an opening; here it is probably referring to the anus.
a film by Federico Fellini
incapable of being stretched
a skin cleaner marketed by Procter & Gamble
not a drug currently marketed in the U.S.
Magnesium sulfate, used to relieve pain, among other uses.
176 · Selected Transcripts
Year of the Depend Adult Undergarment
Most twelve-step drug or alcohol recovery programs teach a belief in God or a "Higher Power" (the latter to soften the blow to atheists).
Kemp and Limbaugh
Jack French Kemp, Jr. (1935-2009), was a conservative American politician, former member of the House of Representative, former Secretary for Housing and Urban Development, and 1996 Republican candidate for Vice President.
Rush Hudson Limbaugh III (born 1951) is a conservative radio talk-show host.
to crawl like ants
a (probably deliberate) misspelling of "magnanimously," i.e., generously
the Fenway-Kenmore section of Boston
more specifically, the nasal septum
also known as cleft lip or cleft palate
As in the same Tommy Doocey already introduced; the harelipped pot dealer in the trailer park with the smelly snakes.
Redundant because "proof" is an expression of alcohol content. Doubling the alcohol percentage gives you proof, i.e., 2% alcohol is 4 proof.
181* · Madame Psychosis on the Radio
Year of the Depend Adult Undergarment
not just a byname for DMZ, but also a radio show host
having a tendency to kill one's father
a person who studies insects scientifically
a misspelling for sphenoid, "a winged bone at the base of the cranium." Merriam-Webster Online. 25 May 2009
having the form of a funnel
having to do with the epiglottis
a nationwide (worldwide?) Jewish student union present on several campuses
the part of the brain connecting the left and right hemispheres
having ridges like the human larynx
receiving funding from the university in exchange for work rendered to the university
a lightweight, balanced, plain-woven fabric
To limn means to describe
referring to the parietal lobe of the brain, responsible for sensory memory and response
Midwesterners in the U.S. use this word to denote what others call "soda," i.e., Coca-Cola, 7-Up, etc.
a pun on the Chinese word tao, ("the way") and the Dow Jones Industrial Average
Eastern Standard Time
literally that part of the brain responsible for autonomic functions like heartbeat, organ activity, etc.
I. M. Pei
Ieoh Ming Pei (born 1917) is a Chinese-born American architect who designed, among other famous buildings, MIT's Green Building.
J. A. Stratton
Julius Adams Stratton (1901-1994) was an American educator and president of MIT between 1959 and 1965.
Page 184 (cont'd)
that part of the brain responsible for higher-order thinking
"...what she's said for three years of midnights..."
Up until 'Look at that fucker Dance,' the rest of her introduction is from Genesis 1.
Largest Whole Prime On The FM Band
109 is a prime number, i.e., divisible only by itself and by 1. Actually the highest number you can get on FM is 108, and there are no whole numbers in FM radio in the U.S.
probably denoting "electromagnetic"
that force in a spinning object that tends to push away objects from the angle of rotation
Reed E. Hundt (born 1948) was chairman of the Federal Communications Committee in 1996, when the Telecommunications Act of 1996 was passed. Wallace may be riffing on that, as it appears there was no equivalent legislation in 1966.
The spatter referred to here is probably the small amount of FM bands that can be sent out.
When used with regard to demand, this term means tending not to change.
The range is about 1.86 miles.
The love of language, the term is also used to describe the study of literature.
lack of function of the ovaries or testicles
Nodular leprosy with leonine facies
a form of leprosy that generates lesions made of nodes and that produces lion-like facial expressions (i.e., "leonine facies")
The acromegalic and hyperkeratosistic. The enuretic.
Arcomegaly is a disorder of the pituitary gland whereby it produces too much human growth hormone, resulting in giantism. Hyperkeratosistic means that one is suffering from hyperkeratosis. Enuresis is the inability to urinate.
The spasmodically torticollic.
having a head tilted to one side (torticollis) involving convulsions (spasmodic)
Guaranteed Student Loan
Semitic languages actually tend to be written uses alphabets, where a symbol denotes a phoneme, rather than in ideograms, like Chinese and Korean are. The oldest alphabet is the Phoenician, which was Semitic.0
in biology, a beaklike or snoutlike (rostral) layer of tissue (lamina)
Neuroform is actually the brand-name of a type of stent.
Standard Operating Procedure
adhering to Italian neorealism
Peterson/Broughton and Dali/Buñuel
Sidney Peterson and James Broughton collaborated on The Potted Psalm (1946), an experimental film.
Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (1904-1989) and Luis Buñuel Portolés (1900-1983) were both Spanish artists. They collaborated on Un chien andalou (An Andalusian Dog, 1929), another experimental film.
Maya Deren and Alexander Hammid codirected Meshes of the Afternoon
Michelangelo Antonioni (1912-2007) was an Italian filmmaker probably most famous for Blowup.
Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky (1932-1986) was a Soviet-Russian filmmaker.
Sometimes Ozu and Bresson
Yasujirō Ozu (1903-1963) was a Japanese filmmaker. Robert Bresson (1901-1999) was a French filmmaker.
According to Wikipedia, dramaturgy is "the art of dramatic composition and the representation of the main elements of drama on the stage." To call it "hoary" would be to imply it's old.
Sir Herbert Tree
Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree (1852-1917) was a British actor and manager. You can hear his performances of Hamlet here.
In the style of Pauline Kael (1919-2001), an American film critic for New Yorker magazine.
De Palma, Tarantino
Brian De Palma and Quentin Tarantino
presumably formalism that focuses too much on form and not enough on character and other aspects of filmmaking
Stan Brakhage and Hollis Frampton
Stan Brakhage (1933-2003) and Hollis Frampton (1936-1984) were American avant-garde filmmakers.
You can read about here here.
the Snow brothers, Vigdis Simpson
One of the Snow brothers would have to be Michael Snow (born 1929), a Canadian-American filmmaker, principally known for Wavelength. Vigdis Simpson seems created.
Page 185 (cont'd)
Brutalism, Found Drama
Brutalism may refer to brutalist architecture. Found Drama is the cinematic extension of Found Art.
inharmonious with other things (here, aspects of Madame Psychosis's taste)
Imamu Amiri Baraka (born Everett LeRoi Jones, 1934) is an African-American poet, playwright, author, and political activist.
actually two words: Pia mater. Latin: tender mother.
plural of "sulcus," a furrow or groove, particularly between sections of the brain
A.Y. ('V.F.') Rickey's summum opus
V. Frederick Rickey is a prominent mathematician. I don't know who A.Y. Rickey is/was, but it is notable that there is, in fact, no Student Union building at MIT.
Summum opus would be a "great work" while magnum opus would be the "best work."
referring to both the parietal lobe of the brain, as well as the occipital lobe, which is where vision is processed
Pons and abducent
The Pons is a structure on the brain stem, while the abducens nerve is a nerve in the muscles of the eye.
a stem of an artery that carries blood to the brain
the second half of the full name of the medulla
acronym for "fluorohydrocarbon," this is a type of fluroplastic, known to give off poisonous fumes
The company's Web site is here.
fifty degrees Fahrenheit
almost 16.5 feet
colored like a blood vessel
employing the element mercury
lacking the larger speaker (i.e., the "woofer") found in multi-speaker systems
noses having a collapsed nasal bridge
shrinking in size
a disease characterized by non-pitting induration of the skin
suffering from serodermatosis, a skin disease with serous effusion into the skin
having water on the brain
tabescent and chachetic
Tabescent refers to a person with tabes dorsalis, and chachetic (probably misspelled) apparently refers to a person with cachexia.
This would seem to be a type of glioma, though it is mentioned almost nowhere.
carbuncular or steatocryptotic
Carbuncular means "pimply," while steatocryptotic refers to a person suffering from steatocryptosis, which is derangement of the sebaceous glands.
This is involuntary closure on one eye, named for Manuel Marin Amat, an early 20th century Spanish ophthalmologist.
suffering from cutaneous tuberculosis
A steatopygiac is a person suffering from steatopygia; if you're bell-shaped, it just means the fat is closer to the bottom than the top
a skin disease marked by patches of pink, oval rash
"Blessed are the poor in body, for they."
This is not one of the Beatitudes.
This is a bona fide acronym for "Universal Health Identifier," though it's doubtful this is what Wallace means. A HID is a "Human Interface Device"; U could stand for "university" or "universal" or something else entirely. Ah, what he means: Union of Hideous and Improbably Deformed
probability waves for subhadronics
Probability waves are a concept in quantum physics that expresses the probability that "a particle or particles in a particular state will be measured to have a given position and momentum" (Wikipedia). Subhadronic refers to a particle smaller than a hadron.
Radcliffe's Bunting Institute
Radcliffe is the women's college at Harvard University. According to the Harvard Web site, "The Bunting Institute is a mutidisciplinary center for women scholars, writers, artists, and activists of demonstrated achievement and promise. Each year, approximately 40 women pursue projects that make significant contributions to their fields, working in a community that fosters interdisciplinary discourse, and creative and intellectual leadership. Some describe their experience as "the Bunting transformation."
Liberal Arts and Sciences
Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (1709-1784), was a British poet, essayist, novelist, literary critic, and lexicographer.
Patricia Beesley, an early 20th century American educator who did author the book named.
There is no such Web site.
Latin: by value
Latin: able of body
Thorp's Trigonometry of Cubes
Edward Oakley Thorp (born 1932) is an American mathematician, but he seems not to have created a "trigonometry of cubes," which would be, frankly, impossible.
aphotic to apochromatic
Aphotic means without light, while apochromatic means developing color.
a member of a film crew, assistant to either the gaffer or key grip
an area of Cambridge, Mass.
misspelling of xanthodontic, which means yellow-toothed
basilisk-breathed and pyorrheic
A basilisk is a type of dragon, and pyorrhea is the condition of having gum disease.
peronic or teratoidal
Peronic means having a bent penis, while teratoidal means malformed.
malformed in the shape of the skull
having lesions that ooze pus
having blisters on the nose
-having to do with body-part removal (think radical mastectomy)
having masses of ulcerated infections of the skin
lazarettes and oubliettes
A lazarette is a hospital that treats infectious diseases, while an oubliette is a dungeon accessible only by trapdoor.
kyphotic and lordotic
Kyphotic means having abnormal rear curvature of the spine (i.e., hunchbacked), while lordotic having abnormal forward curvature of the spine.
turning into a deer; growing horns
looking like a gorgon
papuled, the macular, the albinic
Papules are inflammatory elevations of the skin. Macular means having opaque spots on the cornea. Albinic is having no melanin.
a concubine or slave in a harem
italics, used for emphasis
a crosier is a type of French roll
a type of beer, medium in darkness
French: white wine
Good Morning, Midnight and Maggie: A Girl of the Streets and Giovanni's Room and Under the Volcano
Good Morning, Midnight is a novel by Jean Rhys (1890-1979), born Ella Gwendolen Rees Williams, a Caribbean novelist, on the topic of a woman forced to confront her own loneliness and despair. Maggie: A Girl of the Streets is a novel by Stephen Crane (1871-1900), an American novelist, on the topic of a child prostitute. Giovanni's Room by African-American expatriate author James Arthur Baldwin (1924-1987) is a novel on the topic of a young man coming to terms with his homosexuality. Under the Volcano is a novel by Malcolm Lowry (1909-1957), a British writer, on the topic of alcoholism.
Bret Easton Ellis (born 1965) is an American novelist probably best known for Less Than Zero (1985), about a drug addict who turns to prostitution, and American Psycho (1991), about a serial killer.
van der Rohe
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969) was a German-born American architect.
R.E.M. and Pearl Jam
R.E.M.'s lead singer, Michael Stipe, was famous for his unintelligible lyrics until around 1987's Document. Pearl Jam's vocalist, Eddie Vedder, is as cryptic now as he was fifteen years ago, when they released their first record.
Page 191 (cont'd)
wall- and cross-eyed
To be wall-eyed is to suffer from exotropia, which is a form of ocular paralysis in which one or both eyes turn outward.
ergotic of St. Anthony
An old name for ergot poisoning is "St. Anthony's fire," which is ergot poisoning. However, given the context, Wallace may be referring here to shingles.
a type of eczema due to herpes.
sarcoma'd of Kaposi
Karposi's sarcoma is a usually benign skin cancer common in elderly Mediterranean men that has become the most easily identifiable visible symptom of AIDS.
M. Hamilton as Oz's West Witch
Referring to The Wizard of Oz, the Wicked Witch of the West (and East) was played by Margaret Hamilton.
The image can be seen to the right.
having a broken or projecting tooth
having flesh hanging from one's chin, like a turkey
in a way suggesting a werewolf
suffering from Tourette's syndrome
resembling a monster
having bad breath
saurian- and equine-looking
looking like a lizard or horse, respectively
Named for Harvey Williams Cushing (1869-1939), an American neurologist, this disease is an endocrine disorder resulting in rapid weight gain, sweating, thinning of skin, and other negative side effects.
below the dura mater in the skull
les bâtiments sanctifíes
French: the holy buildings
a 1927 film directed by Fritz Lang